老年人如何通過健身預防跌倒
2018年12月20日09:27

  Stand Up to Aging

  老年人如何通過健身預防跌倒

  Functional Aging: Ground-to-standing exercises help older exercisers preserve strength, improve agility and

  prevent hazardous falls。

  功能老化:從地上到站起來的練習能夠幫助老齡人群增強力量、改善靈敏性並預防跌倒。

  Getting up off the ground grows more difficult as we age。 Muscles and bones weaken, coordination becomes less fluid, and simply doing chores around the house gets more challenging。

  隨著年齡的增大,“從地上站起來”這個簡單的動作變得越來越難。肌肉和骨骼變弱,協調性變差,在家裡做家務變得十分具有挑戰性。

  Ground-to-standing (G2S) exercises address these changes。 While even performance athletes can benefit from G2S drills (see the sidebar “G2S Exercises Also Help Performance Athletes”), they’re supremely helpful for older exercisers who are at risk for broken hips and other threats to their mobility。 In addition to improving strength and mobility, G2S drills improve circulation and neuromuscular coordination。 Adding resistance and load to these drills further improves strength and endurance。

  G2S練習(Ground-to-Standing)便是針對這些變化的。專業運動員也可以通過G2S練習增強運動表現(見附錄中的動作)。老齡訓練者可以通過G2S練習增強力量及靈活性,改善循環系統及神經肌肉協調。使用額外的負重,還可以改善力量和耐力。

  Let’s look at the background on G2S exercises, why they’re beneficial to older clients, and how they help aging bodies perform better。

  我們現在看一下G2S練習的背景知識,瞭解它的機理及實踐方法。

  Why G2S Ability Is So Important

  為什麼G2S能力很重要

  Playing with children and grandchildren requires sinking to their level。 Then there’s the matter of getting back up—which becomes more challenging every year。 G2S drills make it easier to get down on the ground to play with kids, then hop back up and chase them around。

  陪兒孫們玩耍時,老人需要彎下腰至小孩兒的高度。然後,站起來就變得有點難了。隨著年齡的繼續增長,站起來的能力每況愈下。G2S練習能夠幫助老人們坐到地上陪兒孫們玩耍,然後站起來和他們追逐遊戲。

  These challenges multiply around the household。 Reading glasses fall under the coffee table; cat toys must be fetched from under the couch。 Everyday activities underscore a fundamental concern for older people: “Sitting [down on the floor and then rising from it are basic functional tasks] required for autonomy。 The inability to perform these and similar actions are closely related to the risk of falling, and if a fall has occurred, the capacity to return to an upright position is critical” (Brito et al。 2012)。

  衰老帶來的挑戰在家中成倍增加,比如說撿起掉在地上的老花鏡,夠出來掉在沙發底下的玩具。“坐在地上然後站起來是一項基本的功能任務。如果做不到,那麼跌倒的風險成倍增加。如果跌倒,能快速反應,然後站直的能力也很重要。”(Brito et al。 2012)

  Loss of strength, mobility and agility poses severe risks to aging clients。 A 2011 study found that women aged 70–79 who suffer a hip fracture double their risk of dying within a year。 For women 80 and older who are in excellent health, a hip fracture nearly triples their risk of dying within a year (LeBlanc et al。 2011)。 Brito and colleagues found that adults who scored low on the sitting-rising test (SRT) faced more than a six-fold increase in all-cause mortality。

  力量、靈活性、靈敏性的下降會引起一系列風險。一項2011年的研究發現,年齡在70-79歲的髖部骨折的女性在一年內死亡的風險翻了一番。對於健康狀況良好的80歲以上的女性來說,髖部骨折使她們在一年內死亡的風險翻了3倍(LeBlanc et al。 2011)。Brito及同事們發現,在SRT(Sitting-Rising Test,坐下來再站起來)測試中得分較低者,全因死亡率增加了6倍以上。

  G2S exercises improve the strength and mobility people need to extend their life expectancy。

  G2S練習可以提高力量和靈活性,延長預期壽命。

  Why G2S Ability Declines With Age

  為什麼G2S能力會隨年齡的增長而下降?

  Aging has three fundamental markers:

  衰老有3個基本標誌:

dynapenia (loss of muscle strength) (Clark & Manini 2012)sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass) (Doherty 2003)decreased lean body mass (loss of muscle, bone and connective tissue)肌力下降(Dynapenia)(Clark & Manini 2012)肌肉量下降(Sarcopenia)(Doherty 2003)瘦體重下降(肌肉、骨骼及結締組織損失)

  These changes make it more challenging to move efficiently in three dimensions (direction, distance and depth)。 Furthermore, modern conveniences free older adults from having to perform a range of three-dimensional movements。 All these trends reduce mobility and increase the risk of falls。

  這些改變會在3個維度(方向、距離及深度)上引起活動困難。此外,現代化的便利設施使老年人不必進行一系列三維運動,降低靈活性,增加跌倒風險。

  Studies have noted that aging reduces the nervous system’s capacity for communicating with connective tissue and muscle (Tieland, Trouwborst & Clark 2018)。 This process degrades muscle recruitment, making it more difficult to perform activities of daily living。

  研究表明,隨著年齡的增長,神經系統對結締組織及肌肉的控製能力降低(Tieland, Trouwborst & Clark 2018)。肌肉的募集程度降低,會增大日常活動的難度。

  That’s why G2S exercises are so important: They address the twin assaults of dynapenia and sarcopenia。

  G2S練習的重要性就體現在這裏,它可以對抗年齡增長引起的肌力下降及肌肉流失。

  Getting G2S Drills Right

  G2S drills (see the sidebar “5 Ground-to-Standing Exercises”) are designed to improve strength and mobility by rhythmically lengthening and shortening the body’s connective tissues。 The drills start from odd positions to enhance space and motion at the foot and ankle, pelvis and hips, thoracic spine, and scapulothoracic joints。 Properly performing the G2S drills can enhance posture。 Optimal postural alignment represents a proper balance in mobility and strength。

  G2S練習(見附錄“5種G2S練習”)旨在通過有節奏地伸長和縮短結締組織,改善力量和靈活性。練習從一個比較古怪的姿勢開始,為的是增強足、踝、髖、骨盆、胸椎以及肩胛胸壁關節的位置覺和運動覺。適度的G2S練習可以塑造更好的體態。而正確的體態(即身體對線)反映了力量與靈活性之間的平衡。

  G2S exercises don’t require equipment, so it’s possible to do them anywhere, anytime。 Clients can start from ground positions such as sitting, kneeling, half-kneeling (one knee on the ground), supine, prone or side-lying。 Practice coaching your clients on how to get up off of the floor from a variety of these starting positions。 Clients who need assistance can use a bench or seat。

  G2S練習不需要器械,你可以隨時隨地做。從地上的起始姿勢可以是坐姿、跪姿、半跪姿、仰臥姿或側臥姿,而我們教練要做的就是讓客戶從這些起始姿勢下站起來。需要外力輔助的客戶,可以在訓練凳或座椅上進行練習。

  G2S Exercises Also Help Performance Athletes

  G2S練習也可以用於高水平運動員身上

  Ground-to-standing exercises add a variety of motions that can help performance athletes get stronger and avoid injuries。 Since strength requires an ability to accumulate and produce force, the neuromuscular system and the connective tissue system must be able to communicate efficiently to tolerate these forces。

  G2S練習也可以幫助運動員變得強壯,並預防損傷。想要力量大,要有蓄積併發出力量的能力。神經系統內應當協調良好,並有能夠承受住這些力的強大的結締組織。

  Improving tissue tolerance and neuromuscular communication requires athletes to perform and repeat motions from a variety of positions and directions with differences in load, speed, and time under tension。

  想要增強組織的耐受性及神經協調能力,需要在多種姿勢、多個方向上做練習,並輔以變化的負荷、速度以及肌肉處在張力下的時間(Time Under Tension)。

  All sports require players to get into unusual positions that require bending and extending the ankles, knees and hips。 Motions go in all directions, across small and large distances, and include getting low to the ground and exploding high into the air。

  在體育運動中,運動員經常處於髖、膝、踝的屈曲和伸展的姿勢下。由於專項特徵,活動方向多種多樣,移動距離或小或大,有的需要放低姿勢貼近地面,而有的需要竭盡全力往空中跳。

  G2S drills can be terrific movement preparations for tennis, baseball, hockey, football, soccer, volleyball, basketball and many other ground sports。 All athletes need efficiency and speed when going to the ground and getting back up。

  G2S練習可以讓網球、棒球、排球、曲棍球、足球、橄欖球、排球、籃球以及許多其他運動項目的運動員受益。

  Enhancing Circulation With G2S

  促進循環

  The G2S method naturally pumps fluid throughout the body。 Moving up and down through and against the field of gravity causes blood, lymph and water to flow more readily。 The muscle’s pumping action and changes in hydrostatic pressures circulate the fluids (Reed & Rubin 2010)。

  G2S練習可以自然地將體液泵至全身,促進血液、淋巴以及水的循環。肌肉的抽運作用以及靜水壓的變化可以促進體液循環(Reed & Rubin 2010)。

  The more repetitive the movement is and the closer you get to the ground before standing back up again, the more fluid gets pumped throughout the body (Schleip et al。 2012)。 This flow is crucial for maintaining homeostasis in the cells, delivering oxygen to the cells, removing metabolic waste through the lymphatic system and enhancing overall cardiovascular efficiency。

  動作重複次數越多、離地時越靠近地面,泵至身體各處的體液越多(Schleip et al。 2012)。體液的流動對細胞穩態的維持尤為重要,可以將氧氣輸送至細胞,並通過淋巴系統運走代謝廢物,提高心血管系統的整體工作效率。

  Increasing the speed of these exercises makes the cardiovascular system work overtime, creating an excellent cardiovascular modality。

  做練習時增加動作速度,可以引起更好的心血管適應。

  Benefits of Doing G2S Drills

  G2S練習的好處

  Mental

  心靈

reduces anxiety and depressionimproves memory and cognitionenhances self-esteem減輕焦慮及沮喪增強記憶力及認知能力提升自尊

  來源: Delbaere et al。 2004。

  Physical

  身體

improves performance in activities of daily livingslows the impact of sarcopenia and dynapeniaincreases bone and tissue densityimproves balancehelps prevent fallshelps fight diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressuredecreases risk factors for all-cause mortalitylessens chronic pain from osteoarthritis and fibromyalgiaimproves symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome提高日常生活能力減緩肌肉流失、肌力下降的速度增強骨密度及組織密度改善平衡能力防止跌倒有助於對抗糖尿病、心臟病和高血壓降低全因死亡率的風險因素減輕骨關節炎和纖維肌痛症引起的慢性疼痛改善慢性疲勞綜合症的症狀

  Age, Motion and G2S

  年齡、活動及G2S

  Humans self-organize when they move。 That is the essence of motor learning。 Babies learn how to get up off the ground without much coaching。 The same is evident throughout the animal kingdom: Movement is self-taught。

  人類在移動的時候會進行自我組織。這是運動學習的本質。嬰兒在學習如何從地面上起來的時候,並沒有外界的指導。在動物界,動作是自學的。

  However, efficiency of movement doesn’t come so naturally; it has to be enhanced with practice。 Repetition and progression yield greater neuromuscular coordination as the nerves improve their ability to communicate with the body’s motor systems。

  動作的習得是自然的,但是高效的動作並不能通過自然的習得獲得,必須通過練習才能加強。需要不斷地重複、進階,促進更好的神經肌肉協調,形成更好的動作。

  5 Ground-To-Standing Exercises

  5個G2S練習

  By improving muscle strength, cardiovascular efficiency and functional independence, these ground-to-standing exercises will enhance your clients’ ability to move better。 The drills should be performed daily, progressing from the simplest to the most difficult, as shown below。

  G2S練習可以改善力量、心肺功能以及日常生活能力,並增強動作能力。每天都要進行G2S練習,並適時進階。

  For each exercise, have clients do 1–2 sets of 10 repetitions。 Exercise 5 is the most challenging, requiring the most strength and mobility。 While these exercises are ideal for older exercisers, you can use them as a warmup in any client’s program。

  每個動作做1-2組,每組10次。第五個練習比較難,需要很強的力量及靈活性。這些動作的針對對像是老年人,但你也可以在普通客戶的熱身階段做這些練習。

HalfKneeling Step To Stand

  半跪姿起立(Half Kneeling Step To Stand)

Start in a kneeling position, one foot forward。Fix your eyes forward as if sighting a target。 Drive the ground down with your front foot, keeping the upper body still, and step up to a standing position。Maintain good posture, then step the frontfoot back to the starting position。以半跪姿開始,一隻腳在前。眼睛盯向前方。上肢挺直,前腳主導發力站起。身體挺直,前腳回到起始姿勢。Crisscross Applesauce Spin

  雙腿交叉轉身起立(Crisscross Applesauce Spin)

Sit in the “crisscross applesauce” position。Twist back and away from your top leg, and spin your feet and hips 180 degrees in the opposite direction。Use your hand to push the ground away and shift into a standing position。Reverse the pattern on the way down by placing the hand on the ground and twisting back into the seated starting position。坐在地上,雙腿交叉。手輔助發力,向後轉180°至站姿。沿起立時相反的方向,下蹲,手撐地,轉身,回到起始姿勢。Supine Roll To Inchworm

  仰臥翻身+手走(Supine Roll To Inchworm)

Lie in a supine position。Roll over to a prone position。Push your body off the ground into a plank。Walk your hands toward your feet, and then stand up out of your deep bow。Bend over and walk your hands back to a plank position。Lower your chest until your body is flat on the ground。Roll back over。Repeat, rolling in the other direction。仰臥於地面。翻身,至俯臥姿。推起身體,至平板支撐姿勢。雙手向雙腳行進,然後伸髖站起。俯身,雙手向前行進,至平板支撐姿勢。胸部慢慢放下,至俯臥姿。重複,向相反的方向翻身。Prone Stand to Statue

  平板支撐至單腿站立(Prone Stand to Statue)

Start in a prone plank position, hands shoulder-width apart, feet hip-width apart。Step your right foot to the outside of your right hand。Shift your weight onto the right leg and push the ground away。Propel yourself vertically into a single-leg balanced stance。Hold that position as though you were a statue。Reverse the pattern to descend back to the starting position。Alternate sides (left side is shown), or perform a desired number of reps on the same side before switching。從俯臥平板支撐姿勢開始,雙手與肩等寬,雙腳與髖同寬。將右腳前跨至右手外側。重心放在右腿上,然後發力站起。右腿支撐,左腿抬起,單腿支撐站立。保持這個姿勢,感覺自己像是一尊雕塑。沿剛才相反的流程回到起始姿勢。換邊繼續進行。Side-lying Crossover To Forward Lunge

  側臥交叉步至前弓步(Side-lying Crossover To Forward Lunge)

Start in a side-lying position leaning on the hand or, for a greater challenge, on the forearm。Cross the top leg toward the supporting arm that is in contact with the ground。Drive the front leg into the ground to transfer off the ground。Immediately continue your momentum forward by stepping into a forward lunge。Reverse the pattern by stepping back into the starting position。In that starting position, stay as straight as a steel beam。以側臥姿勢開始,手撐地。想增大難度,肘撐地。將上邊那條腿向支撐側的手臂收。起身,然後迅速轉換至前弓步。沿剛才相反的流程回到起始姿勢。在起始姿勢下,身體要保持一條直線,核心要收緊。

  Aging degrades movement efficiency。 The G2S method is a safe, effective way to turn that around, enhancing communication and coordination in the body。 Put these exercises to work so your older clients can stay strong and agile and reduce the risks of dangerous falls。

  衰老會是動作效率降低。G2S練習是一種安全、有效的延緩衰老的方式,可以增強身體的協調。把G2S練習放到你的老年客戶的訓練計劃中,讓他們保持強健、敏捷,並預防跌倒意外。

  Demonstration Videos

Tall Kneeling Step To Stand

  雙腿交叉轉身起立

Crisscross Applesauce Spin

  雙腿交叉轉身起立

Supine Roll To Inchworm

  仰臥翻身+手走

Prone Stand to Statue

  平板支撐至單腿站立

Side-lying Crossover To Forward Lunge

  側臥交叉步至前弓步

  作者:John Sinclair

  翻譯:趙鵬旺

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