普林斯頓“除名”前總統威爾遜?過度反應還是客觀公允?
2020年07月01日07:34

原標題:普林斯頓“除名”前總統威爾遜?過度反應還是客觀公允?

原創 PUP China 普林斯頓讀書彙

Editor's Note:

當地時間27日,普林斯頓大學網站發佈聲明,將把美國第28任總統伍德羅·威爾遜(Woodrow Wilson)的名字從學校公共政策學院和威爾遜學院中移除,緣由是威爾遜的種族主義立場。

此事件經國內媒體報導後登上了新浪熱搜——#普林斯頓大學將前美國總統威爾遜除名。一些網友結合此前因為種族主義運動在美國高校間引發的風波,對於此舉表達了認為學校“過度反應”的看法。

同時,也有一些細心的網友發現,真實的情況其實並非很多媒體報導中所說的將威爾遜從大學中“除名”,而只是將威爾遜的名字移除出兩個學院的命名。

在學校網站公開信的原文中,使用的措辭是“to remove Wilson’s name from public policy school and Wilson College”,而部分媒體將“remove name”直接翻譯為“除名”,則在某種程度上誇大了不同語境下人們賦予這一事件的感情色彩和價值判斷。

其實正如普林斯頓大學校董會在發佈給媒體的一份聲明中所指出的:

Though we conclude today that Wilson’s racism makes him an inappropriate namesake for the University’s School of Public and International Affairs, we recognize that Princeton has a continuing responsibility to remember his achievements even as we honestly and publicly contend with his failures.

(雖然我們今天得出的結論是,威爾遜的種族歧視立場使得他的名字不適合命名學校公共與國際事務學院,但是我們認為,普林斯頓仍有責任銘記威爾遜的成就,正如我們誠實、公開的面對他的失敗一樣。)

為了幫助大家更加客觀理性的看待這一事件,我們將由普林斯頓大學校長Christopher L. Eisgruber於2020年6月27日執筆的公開信及翻譯版發佈於此,希望大家閱讀校長信件原文之後,能夠通過這個一手資料得出自己的結論。

Dear Members of the Princeton Community,

致普林斯頓大學社區成員們,

When I wrote to you on Monday morning, June 22, I noted that the Princeton University Board of Trustees was discussing how the University could oppose racism and would soon convene a special meeting on that topic. The meeting took place yesterday, June 26. On my recommendation, the board voted to change the names of both the School of Public and International Affairs and Wilson College. As you will see from the board’s statement, the trustees concluded that Woodrow Wilson’s racist thinking and policies make him an inappropriate namesake for a school or college whose scholars, students, and alumni must stand firmly against racism in all its forms.

當我在6月22日(星期一)早上給大家寫信時,我提到了普林斯頓大學校董會正在討論學校近期該如何就反對種族主義的議題開一場特別會議。最終,我們於昨天(6月26日)召開了這場會議。根據我的建議,校董會投票決定了對公共與國際事務學院和威爾遜學院這兩所機構的名稱進行更改。從校董會的聲明中可以看出,理事們認為伍德羅·威爾遜的種族主義思想及其政策使他不適於作為學院的冠名者。我們的學者、學生和校友們必須堅決反對一切形式的種族主義。

As most of you know, the board previously considered whether to remove Wilson’s name after a group of student activists occupied my office in November 2015. The Wilson Legacy Review Committee conducted a thorough, deliberative process. In April 2016, it recommended a number of reforms to make this University more inclusive and more honest about its history. The committee and the board, however, left Wilson’s name on the School and the College.

正如大家所知,2015年11月,在一群學生運動者占領了我的辦公室之後,校董會曾考慮過是否移去威爾遜的冠名。威爾遜遺留審查委員會就此進行了詳盡徹底、深思熟慮的審核。在2016年4月,委員會建議進行一系列改革,以使普林斯頓大學更加包容且更加誠實的面對其歷史。但是,委員會和校董會依然決定在這兩所學院的名稱中保留威爾遜的名字。

The board reconsidered these conclusions this month as the tragic killings of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, and Rayshard Brooks drew renewed attention to the long and damaging history of racism in America. Board Chair Weezie Sams ’79 and I spoke individually to members of the board, and it then met on June 26.

本月,喬治·弗洛伊德、佈雷娜·泰勒、艾莫德·阿伯里以及雷沙德·布魯克斯的悲慘遭遇再次引起了人們對美國種族主義持久且極具破壞性歷史的關注,因此校董會對上文的決議進行了重新考量。我和校董會主席、普林斯頓大學79屆校友韋齊·薩姆斯分別與校董會成員們進行了談話,並於6月26日召開了會議。

The board continues to respect, as do I, the Wilson Legacy Review Committee’s process and report, including its description of Wilson’s historical record and its “presumption that names adopted by the trustees after full and thoughtful deliberation … will remain in place, especially when the original reasons for adopting the names remain valid.” The board nevertheless concluded that the presumption should yield in this case because of considerations specific to Wilson’s racist policies and to how his name shapes the identities of the School and the College.

校董會和我本人一如既往地尊重威爾遜遺留審查委員會的審核和報告,包括委員會對威爾遜歷史檔案的描述以及其“採用冠名的最初原因仍然有效,理事們在經過深入且充分考慮後所採用的冠名仍應保留” 的推論。儘管如此,董事會仍然得出結論,在當前狀況下,考慮到威爾遜的種族主義政策以及其名字對兩所學院的定位所產生的影響,上述保留命名的推論應當做出讓步。

Wilson’s racism was significant and consequential even by the standards of his own time. He segregated the federal civil service after it had been racially integrated for decades, thereby taking America backward in its pursuit of justice. He not only acquiesced in but added to the persistent practice of racism in this country, a practice that continues to do harm today.

即使按照威爾遜所處時代的標準,他的種族偏見依然十分嚴重且後果顯著。在種族融合數十年後,他仍對聯邦公務員體系實行種族隔離,使得美國在追求公正的道路上出現倒退。他不僅默許,還加深了美國持續的種族主義實踐,這一實踐仍對當今的美國社會產生傷害。

Wilson’s segregationist policies make him an especially inappropriate namesake for a public policy school. When a university names a school of public policy for a political leader, it inevitably suggests that the honoree is a model for students who study at the school. This searing moment in American history has made clear that Wilson’s racism disqualifies him from that role. In a nation that continues to struggle with racism, this University and its school of public and international affairs must stand clearly and firmly for equality and justice. The School will now be known as “The Princeton School of Public and International Affairs.”

威爾遜的種族隔離政策使他的名字尤其不適於用作公共政策學院的名稱。當一所大學以政治領導人的名字為其公共政策院系命名時,這一舉動不可避免地暗示著命名者是該院系學生的榜樣。美國歷史上的這一炙痛時刻已經清晰地表明,威爾遜的種族主義傾向使他喪失了成為這一榜樣的資格。在一個持續與種族主義鬥爭的國家中,普林斯頓大學及其公共和國際事務學院必須旗幟鮮明、立場堅定地捍衛平等與公正。學院現在將正式更名為“普林斯頓公共與國際事務學院”。

The University had already planned to close Wilson College and retire its name after opening two new residential colleges currently under construction. Rather than ask students in the College to identify with the name of a racist president for the next two years, the University will accelerate retirement of the name. The College will instead be known as “First College” in recognition of its status as the first of the residential colleges that now play an essential role in the residential life of all Princeton undergraduates.

在開放兩個在建的新寄宿製學院後,普林斯頓大學已經計劃關閉威爾遜學院並不再使用其名稱。普林斯頓大學將加快停止使用這一名稱的流程,而不是要求該學院的學生在接下來的兩年里繼續使用一個種族主義總統的名字。該學院將被稱為“第一學院”以紀念它作為普林斯頓大學第一所且至今仍在本科生中發揮重要作用的寄宿製學院的地位。

These conclusions may seem harsh to some. Wilson remade Princeton, converting it from a sleepy college into a great research university. Many of the virtues that distinguish Princeton today—including its research excellence and its preceptorial system—were in significant part the result of Wilson’s leadership. He went on to the American presidency and received a Nobel Prize. People will differ about how to weigh Wilson’s achievements and failures. Part of our responsibility as a University is to preserve Wilson’s record in all of its considerable complexity.

對於某些人而言,上述結論可能略顯苛刻。威爾遜重塑了普林斯頓大學,將其從一所毫無活力的大學轉變為一所傑出的研究型大學。(編者註:從1902年開始,威爾遜曾任普林斯頓大學校長8年。)如今普林斯頓大學所擁有的諸多顯著優點,包括卓越的研究能力和導師製度,在很大程度上都得益於威爾遜在任時的領導。此後,他擔任了美國總統並獲得了諾貝爾獎。對於如何權衡威爾遜的功與過,人們將各持己見。作為一所大學,普林斯頓的一部分職責就是在歷史記錄中保留威爾遜人生中顯著的複雜性。

Wilson is a different figure from, say, John C. Calhoun or Robert E. Lee, whose fame derives from their defenses of the Confederacy and slavery (Lee was often honored for the very purpose of expressing sympathy for segregation and opposition to racial equality). Princeton honored Wilson not because of, but without regard to or perhaps even in ignorance of, his racism.

威爾遜與約翰·卡爾霍恩或羅伯特·李這些因保衛邦聯和奴隸製而聞名的人物是不一樣的(羅伯特·李常常因其讚同種族隔離和反對種族平等而被紀念)。普林斯頓大學此前尊榮威爾遜並不是因為其種族主義,但是也沒有將他的種族主義納入考量因素,甚至可能是完全忽視了這一點。

That, however, is ultimately the problem. Princeton is part of an America that has too often disregarded, ignored, or excused racism, allowing the persistence of systems that discriminate against Black people. When Derek Chauvin knelt for nearly nine minutes on George Floyd’s neck while bystanders recorded his cruelty, he might have assumed that the system would disregard, ignore, or excuse his conduct, as it had done in response to past complaints against him.

然而,這才是問題的最終所在。普林斯頓大學是美國的一部分,而這個國家早已過於經常地忽視、無視種族主義的存在或為其尋找藉口,從而致使歧視黑人的製度得以持久存在。當德里克·沙文對喬治·弗洛伊德實行“膝蓋鎖喉”長達近9分鐘的時候,旁觀者對他的殘酷行為進行了記錄。他那時可能認為,這個體製仍會像過去那樣,忽視、無視他的行徑或為他的作為尋找藉口,正如其曾經無視了過往針對他的所有投訴一樣。

The steps taken yesterday by the Board of Trustees are extraordinary measures. These are not the only steps our University is taking to combat the realities and legacy of racism, but they are important ones. I join the trustees in hoping that they will provide the University, the School of Public and International Affairs, and our entire community with a firm foundation to pursue the mission of teaching, research, and service that has defined our highest aspirations and generated our greatest achievements throughout our history and today.

董事會昨天採取的措施是超乎尋常的。這並非普林斯頓大學為反對種族主義的現實和遺留所採取的唯一措施,但卻是相當重要的措施。我與理事們一致希望,這些措施能夠為普林斯頓大學、公共與國際事務學院以及我們的整個社區提供一個堅實的基礎,以追求我們教學、研究和服務的使命,正是這一使命定義了我們從古至今的最高理想並催生了我們最大的成就。

With best wishes,

此致,

Christopher L. Eisgruber

克里斯托弗·L·艾斯格魯伯

編後記:

伍德羅·威爾遜(1856-1924)曾任普林斯頓大學校長,是唯一一名擁有哲學博士頭銜的美國總統。1919 年,威爾遜被授予當年的諾貝爾和平獎。

其實,威爾遜與普林斯頓大學出版社的淵源同樣深厚。115年前,正是帶著他的推薦信,普林斯頓校友Whitney Darrow拿到了時任普林斯頓大學校董、出版巨頭Charles Scribner的資助,成立了普林斯頓大學出版社,並從印刷一本本《校友週刊》的小型出版社,發展至今成為全世界享有盛譽的學術出版機構。

無論是普林斯頓大學,還是普林斯頓大學出版社,堅持客觀公允的評判,對事實本身給予最大的尊重,都是學術研究以及學術出版得以安身立命之根基。

而對於靜觀事態演變的廣大看客來說,避免被輿論裹挾的最好方式可能無非一點:永遠求實求真,用一手信息去佐證自己的結論。

原標題:《普林斯頓“除名”前總統威爾遜?過度反應還是客觀公允?》

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